Grandy Jury Practice: Table of Contents

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  • Part I: Grand Jury Practice(Read Full Document)

    • GRAND JURY PRACTICE ……………….1
    • THE GRAND JURY’S COMPOSITION ……………..2
    • MOTION TO QUASH GRAND JURY …………2
    • ESTABLISHING A PRIMA FACIE SHOWING OF DISCRIMINATION……………………………4
      • BURDEN THEN SHIFTS TO THE GOVERNMENT …….. 5
      • IDENTIFIABLE GROUPS…………….. 6
        • African Americans:…… 6
        • Women:…….. 6
        • Young adults: ………… 6
        • Others:……….. 7
      • SELECTION OF GRAND JURY FOREPERSON MAY ALSO CONSTITUTE SUCH A DEPRIVATION:…………….. 7
      • STANDING TO COMPLAIN OF SYSTEMATIC EXCLUSION ………… 8
      • An evidentiary hearing must be provided:…………. 9
      • TIMELINESS OF THE CHALLENGE………………. 9
    • PARTICULAR GRAND JUROR NEED NOT BE PRESENT AT EVERY SESSION TO VOTE
    • DEFENDANT TRUE BILL……11
    • PRESENCE OF UNAUTHORIZED PERSONS……………..11
    • REQUIREMENT TO PRESENT EXCULPATORY EVIDENCE………..12
    • ABUSE OF GRAND JURY……………….12
    • SECRECY…………………13
      • FEDERAL: ……………13
        • GOVERNMENT USE OF GRAND JURY MATERIALS TO DETERMINE WHETHER TO PROCEED IN A CIVIL ACTION …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………14
        • GOVERNMENT’S USE OF GRAND JURY INFORMATION TO PURSUE CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION
        • ELSEWHERE……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………15
    • NO INTERLOCUTORY APPEAL FOR A VIOLATION OF THE RULE OF SECRECY …….16
      • FEDERAL: ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………16
      • STATE: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..16
    • FIRST AMENDMENT ISSUES AND THE RIGHT OF A GRAND JURY WITNESSES TO THEIR OWN TESTIMONY………………………………………………………………………………………..17
    • RIGHT TO COPY OF TRANSCRIPT…………………………………………………………………………..18
    • RIGHT TO HAVE WITNESS’ GRAND JURY TESTIMONY TRANSCRIBED …………………18
      • FEDERAL: ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………19
      • STATE: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..19
    • PROBLEMS REGARDING GRAND JURY SUBPOENAS……………………………………………..19
      • PLACE TO APPEAR………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………19
      • SPECIFICITY IN SUBPOENA IS NOT REQUIRED…………………………………………………………………………….21
      • SERVICE OF GRAND JURY SUBPOENA…………………………………………………………………………………………21
      • WHO MAY BE SUBPOENAED?………………………………………………………………………………………………………21
        • “Targets” of Investigations……………………………………………………………………………………………………………22
        • Lawyers…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….22
      • WHERE GOVERNMENT REFUSES TO FOLLOW INTERNAL GUIDELINES………………………………….22
      • SUBPOENA DUCES TECUM: ITEMS SOUGHT MUST BE ADEQUATELY DESCRIBED………………………23
      • “OPPRESSIVENESS”, NOT “RELEVANCY”, IS THE TEST ………………………………………………………………..24
      • RULE 17 APPLICABLE IN PART TO GRAND JURY SUBPOENAS……………………………………………………..25
    • POST INDICTMENT GRAND JURY INVESTIGATION……………………………………………….25
      • THE GENERAL RULE: ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….25
        • IMPERMISSIBLE TO EMPLOY THE NON-RECIPROCAL BENEFITS OF A GRAND JURY INVESTIGATION FOR DISCOVERY AGAINST AN INDICTED DEFENDANT…………………………………….27
        • STANDARD APPLIED …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..28
        • INCIDENTAL USE OF INFORMATION OBTAINED THROUGH GRAND JURY IN PENDING TRIALS…..29
        • BY HOOK OR BY CROOK ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..30
    • THE FIFTH AMENDMENT AS APPLICABLE TO GRAND JURY PROCEEDINGS ………..30
      • ANSWER NEED ONLY BE “ADVERSE” ………………………………………………………………………………………….31
      • REQUIRING A WITNESS TO INVOKE PRIVILEGE BEFORE GRAND JURY……………………………………….32
      • IT IS THE COMPELLED PRODUCTION WHICH IS PROTECTED BY THE PRIVILEGE………………………..34
      • FIFTH AMENDMENT PRIVILEGE PROTECTS AGAINST COMPELLED PRODUCTION OF RECORDS OF SOLE PROPRIETORSHIP……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….35
      • SIZE OR DIVERSITY OF SOLE PROPRIETORSHIP NOT RELEVANT ………………………………………….36
      • CUSTODIAN OF “CORPORATE RECORDS” HAS NO “ACT OF PRODUCTION” FIFTH AMENDMENT PRIVILEGE…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..37
      • REQUIRED RECORDS………………………………………………………………………………………………………………39
      • MUST HAVE “JURISDICTION” OVER CORPORATION……………………………………………………………………39
      • SOLE PROPRIETOR MAY RETAIN RIGHT TO INTERVENE AND PRECLUDE COMPELLED PRODUCTION OF RECORDS FROM EMPLOYEE…………………………………………………………………………….40
    • GRAND JURY WITNESS: …………………………………………………………………………………………41
      • MATERIAL WITNESSES……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….41
    • SANCTION AND APPEAL FOR CONTEMPT……………………………………………………………..43
      • REFUSAL TO COMPLY…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………43
      • CONTEMPT POWERLIMITED……………………………………………………………………………………………………….43
      • ENTITLED TO “ONE BITE” THEORY ……………………………………………………………………………………………..44
      • MOTION TO INTERVENE ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..44
      • INTERVENOR HAS RIGHT TO INTERLOCUTORY APPEAL…………………………………………………………….47
      • “CONTENT” VS. “ACT OF PRODUCTION” ANALYSIS TO SUBPOENAS DUCES TECUM …………………..48
    • EFFECT OF GUILTY PLEA ON ABILITY TO INVOKE FIFTH AMENDMENT PRIVILEGE ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….50
    • IMMUNIZING GRAND JURY WITNESSES………………………………………………………………..51
      • FEDERAL: ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………51
      • TEXAS:………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..52
      • USE IMMUNITY STATUTE [28 U.S.C. § 6002] PROHIBITS USING COMPELLED TESTIMONY IN “ANY RESPECT”…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….52
      • CERTIFICATION OF EVIDENCE OBTAINED INDEPENDENTLY OF GRAND JURY TESTIMONY ………53
      • GRAND JURY HEARING COMPELLED TESTIMONY SHOULD NOT THEREAFTER INDICT THE WITNESS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..54
      • HEARING REQUIRED PRIOR TO ISSUANCE OF ORDER GRANTING IMMUNITY? …………………………..55
      • JUSTICE DEPARTMENT OFFICIAL MUST EXPRESSLY APPROVE GRANT OF IMMUNITY ………………56
      • DISTRICT COURT HAS DISCRETION TO DENY AN ORDER WHERE SAME WOULD INFRINGE UPON CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS………………………………………………………………………………………………………….57
      • FEAR OF FOREIGN PROSECUTION……………………………………………………………………………………………….58
      • IMMUNITY STATEMENT EXPRESSLY EXEMPTS “FALSE STATEMENTS” PROSECUTION………………58
      • PRIOR STATEMENTS TO FEDERAL OFFICER………………………………………………………………………………..59
      • PRIOR INCONSISTENT STATEMENTS COULD BE USED TO PROVE INCONSISTENT TESTIMONY BEFORE GRAND JURY WAS PERJUROUS: ……………………………………………………………………………………60
      • THE IMMUNIZED WITNESS………………………………………………………………………………………………………….60
      • SEALING OF PROSECUTION’S EVIDENCE PRIOR TO TAKING IMMUNIZED TESTIMONY……………….61
      • NOT SEEK INDICTMENT FROM SAME GRAND JURY HEARING THAT COMPELLED TESTIMONY….61
      • RIGHT TO COUNSEL…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….61
      • NO ADVERSE INFERENCE FROM EXERCISE OF RIGHT TO COUNSEL……………………………………………61
      • CONSEQUENCES TO WITNESS OF COMPELLED TESTIMONY……………………………………………………….61
      • ‘GRAND JURY’S RIGHT NOT TO COMPEL TESTIMONY ………………………………………………………………….61
    • OTHER TESTIMONIAL PRIVILEGES APPLICABLE TO GRAND JURY PROCEEDINGS…..62
          • ATTORNEY-CLIENT…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….63
          • WHERE THE VERY EXISTENCE OF THE ATTORNEY-CLIENT RELATIONSHIP MIGHT BE INCRIMINATING TO A CLIENT, SAME MAY UNDER LIMITED CIRCUMSTANCES BE PRIVILEGED
            ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..63
            COURTS AND COMMENTATORS OFTEN SEPARATE THE EXCEPTIONS INTO ONE OF THREE
            CATEGORIES:………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….66

            • 1. THE “LAST LINK EXCEPTION”: ………………………………………………………………………………………………….66
            • 2. THE “LEGAL ADVICE” EXCEPTION:…………………………………………………………………………………………..66
            • 3. THE CONFIDENTIAL COMMUNICATION EXCEPTION: ……………………67
        • CLIENT WITH PENDING CASE …………………………………………………………………………………………………67
        • TIMING IS EVERYTHING …………………………………………………………………………………………………………68
        • DISCUSSIONS BETWEEN AN INDIVIDUAL AND “A LAWYER REPRESENTING ANOTHER IN A MATTER OF COMMON INTEREST” ARE PRIVILEGED……………………………………………………………..69
        • JOINT DEFENSE/REPRESENTATION…………………………………………………………………………………………69
        • PRIVILEGE PROTECTS COMMUNICATIONS AT MEETING BETWEEN “PERSONS SUBJECT TO POSSIBLE INDICTMENT” AND THEIR LAWYER……………………………………………………………………….70
        • CRIME-FRAUD EXCEPTION……………………………………………………………………………………………………..71
        • IN CAMERA EXAMINATION…………………………………………………………………………………………………….73
        • MAY “PRIVILEGED COMMUNICATION” ITSELF BE CONSIDERED IN……………………………………….73
        • PRELIMINARY REQUIREMENT OF RELEVANCY……………………………………………………………………..73
        • PRELIMINARY REQUIREMENT OF NEED…………………………………………………………………………………74
        • ATTORNEY SELF-DEFENSE EXCEPTION………………………………………………………………………………….75
        • GRANT OF IMMUNITY TO CLIENT DOES NOT DESTROY ATTORNEY-CLIENT PRIVILEGE ………75
        • STATE CHALLENGE OF ATTORNEY’S GRAND JURY SUBPOENA……………………………………………..75
        • CODE OF PROFESSIONAL RESPONSIBILITY……………………………………………………………………………77
      • DISTINCT PRIVILEGE UNDER “WORK-PRODUCT DOCTRINE” …………………………………………………….77
        • DOCTRINE PROTECTS ADVERSARY PROCESS ITSELF…………………………………………………………..78
        • WORK-PRODUCT DOCTRINE BROADER THAN ATTORNEY-CLIENT PRIVILEGE……………………..78
        • DOCTRINE PROTECTS ATTORNEY NOT CLIENT …………………………………………………………………….79
        • DOCTRINE APPLICABLE TO CRIMINAL PROCEEDINGS…………………………………………………………..79
        • DOCTRINE APPLIES TO TESTIMONY RESPECTING A WITNESS’ ORAL STATEMENTS TO AN
        • ATTORNEY PREPARING HIS CASE FOR TRIAL ………………………………………………………………………..79
        • CRIME-FRAUD EXCEPTION……………………………………………………………………………………………………..80
        • CLIENT’S LOCATION MAY BE A PRIVILEGED COMMUNICATION…………………………………………..80
      • FIFTH AMENDMENT PRIVILEGE AGAINST COMPELLED PRODUCTION OF “PRIVATE PAPERS” …..81
      • FOREIGN LAW …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….82
      • MARITAL PRIVILEGES…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………82
        • [ADVERSE SPOUSAL TESTIMONY VS. MARITAL COMMUNICATIONS]……………………………………82
        • ADVERSE TESTIMONIAL PRIVILEGE VESTS IN TESTIFYING SPOUSE……………………………………..83
        • COVERS ACTS AND COMMUNICATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………83
        • NEED NOT BE CONFIDENTIAL ………………………………………………………………………………………………..83
        • NO PRIVILEGE IF MARRIAGE DEFUNCT………………………………………………………………………………….84
        • CRIMINAL ENTERPRISE EXCEPTION APPLIES ONLY TO “CONFIDENTIAL COMMUNICATIONS
        • PRIVILEGE” NOT “ADVERSE TESTIMONIAL PRIVILEGE” ………………………………………………………..84
        • TESTIMONY NEED NOT BE TECHNICALLY INCRIMINATING TO BE “ADVERSE” …………………….84
        • CRUEL TRILEMMA………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….85
      • ESTABLISHING PRIVILEGE BY IN CAMERA PROFFER………………………………………………………………….85
      • FAMILY PRIVILEGE …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….86
      • PSYCHOTHERAPIST-PATIENT PRIVILEGE……………………………………………………………………………………87
    • RIGHT TO COUNSEL……………………………………………………………………………………………….87
    • DEFENDANT’S GRAND JURY TESTIMONY……………………………………………………………..89
    • GRAND JURY TRANSCRIPTS OF OTHER WITNESSES……………………………………………..90
    • REQUESTS FOR DOCUMENTS OBTAINED BY GRAND JURY ………………………………….91
    • POOR MEMORY………………………………………………………………………………………………………91
    • ELECTRONIC SURVEILLANCE ……………………………………………………………………………….92
    • WHAT MATTERS MAY GRAND JURY INVESTIGATE?…………………………………………….92
    • INEFFECTIVE” BY DEFINITION……………………………………………………………………………..93
    • ADVICE OF “RIGHTS” OF GRAND JURY WITNESSES ……………………………………………..93
    • GRAND JURY REFORMS …………………………………………………………………………………………94
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