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Direct Examination: Table of Contents

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Part IX: Direct Examination

  • THEORY OF THE CASE……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1
    • LAST THINGS FIRST……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1
    • STORY TO TELL……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1
    • APPEARANCES COUNT……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1
    • ADVISE EACH WITNESS OF HOW HE OR SHE FITS IN “BIG PICTURE”……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 2
    • WITNESS NEEDS TO BE PREPARED FOR THE COUNTER ATTACK……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 2
    • THE “REAL EVIDENCE” IS NOT ALWAYS TESTIMONIAL……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 2
    • ANTICIPATING IMPEACHMENT……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 2
    • DISCOVERY OF YOUR WITNESS’ STATEMENTS IN THE PROSECUTOR’S POSSESSION…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 3
    • DISCOVERING THE DEFENDANT’S STATEMENT……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 3
    • WRITINGS OR TAPE RECORDINGS OF THE DEFENDANT……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 3
    • SPONTANEOUS ADMISSIONS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 4
    • DEFENDANT’S ORAL STATEMENTS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 4
    • SUMMARIES OF INTERVIEWS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 4
    • AGENT’S ROUGH NOTES……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 4
    • DEFENDANT’S GRAND JURY TESTIMONY……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 5
    • CORPORATE OFFICERS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 5
    • SANCTIONS [RULE 16(d)(2)]……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 6
    • DEFENSE WITNESS’ STATEMENT TAKEN BY OR GIVEN TO LAW ENFORCEMENT…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 6
    • PRETRIAL DISCLOSURE OF “EXCULPATORY” EVIDENCE……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 8
    • RECIPROCAL DISCOVERY………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 11
    • STATEMENTS OF YOUR WITNESSES MAY BE DISCOVERABLE BY PROSECUTION [FED. R. P. Rule 26.2]……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 12
    • SANCTIONS………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 12
    • IMPEACHMENT BY EVIDENCE OF CONVICTION OF CRIME [FED. R. EVID. RULE 609]……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 12
    • REMOTENESS [FED. EVID. RULE 609(b)]………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 13
    • FINALITY OF CONVICTION [FED. EVID. RULE 609(c)]………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 13
    • DETAILS OF OFFENSE ARE INADMISSIBLE………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 13
    • EFFECT OF PARDON, ANNULMENT OR CERTIFICATION OF REHABILITATION [FED. EVID. Rule 609(c)]……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 13
    • DISTINCTION BETWEEN STATE AND FEDERAL………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 13
  • MOTION TO COMPEL DISCLOSURE OF………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 15
  • MEMORANDUM OF LAW IN SUPPORT OF MOTION TO COMPEL………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 17
    • STATEMENT OF FACTS………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 17
    • ARGUMENT………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 17
  • IMPEACHING YOUR OWN WITNESS………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 19
    • WHO MAY IMPEACH [FED. EVID. RULE 607]………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 19
    • LEADING YOUR OWN WITNESS………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 19
      • LEADING QUESTIONS [FED. EVID. RULE 611(c)]………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 19
  • TESTIMONY ON DIRECT………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 19
    • RENDERING EXCLUDED ILLEGALLY………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 19
    • LEADING HOSTILE AND ADVERSE WITNESSES………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 20
    • MODE OF INTERROGATION [FED. EVID. RULE 611]………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 20
    • SCOPE OF EXAMINATION [FED. EVID. RULE 611(b)]………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 20
    • REFRESHING YOUR WITNESS’ RECOLLECTION………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 20
    • OPINION ON ULTIMATE ISSUE [FED. EVID. RULE 704]………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 21
    • IMPEACHMENT BY PRIOR INCONSISTENT STATEMENT [FED. R. EVID. RULE 801(d)(1)(A)]……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 21
    • CHARTS OR SUMMARIES OF VOLUMINOUS WRITINGS, RECORDINGS OR PHOTOGRAPHS WHICH CANNOT BE CONVENIENTLY EXAMINED IN COURT MAY BE “PRESENTED” IN THE FORM OF A CHART, SUMMARY, OR CALCULATION……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 21
    • UNDERLYING DOCUMENTS MUST BE VOLUMINOUS AND IN-COURT EXAMINATION MUST BE INCONVENIENT……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 22
    • NOT REQUIRED THAT UNDERLYING DOCUMENTS THEMSELVES BE RECEIVED IN EVIDENCE AS A FOUNDATION FOR THE SUMMARIES BUT ONLY THAT THEY BE “AVAILABLE”……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 22
    • UNDER RULE 1006, CHART OR SUMMARY MAY BE CONSIDERED AS EVIDENCE RATHER THAN A MERE JURY AID……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 22
    • BUT CHART STILL REQUIRED TO E ACCURATE, AUTHENTIC AND PROPERLY INTRODUCED BEFORE ADMISSION UNDER RULE 1006……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 22
    • SUMMARY OF PURELY TESTIMONIAL EVIDENCE MAY ALSO BE UTILIZED AS A JURY AID WITH LIMITING INSTRUCTION THAT IS NOT TO BE CONSIDERED AS EVIDENCE……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 23
    • CHARACTER EVIDENCE NOT ADMISSIBLE TO PROVE CONDUCT [FED. R. EVID. RULE 404]……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 23
  • CHARACTER OF ACCUSED………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 23
    • OFFERED BY ACCUSED………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 24
    • OFFERED BY PROSECUTION TO REBUT SAME………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 24
  • CHARACTER OF VICTIM [FED. EVID. RULE 404(a)(2)]………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 24
    • OTHER CRIMES EVIDENCE………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 24
    • MOTIVE………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 25
    • INTENT………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 25
    • RELEVANCY………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 25
    • BALANCING TEST………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 25
    • KNOWLEDGE………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 26
    • IDENTITY………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 26
    • FLIGHT………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 26
    • REBUT A DEFENSE THEORY………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 26
    • PREDISPOSITION………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 27
    • ORDER OF PROOF………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 27
    • REMOVING ISSUE………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 27
    • DISCOVERY OF EXTRANEOUS OFFENSES………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 28
  • METHODS OF PROVING CHARACTER [FED. R. Rule 405]………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 28
    • REPURATION OR OPINION………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 28
    • SPECIFIC INSTANCES OF CONDUCT………………………………………………. 28
  • PROOF OF CHARACTER [FED. RULES RULES 405(a) AND 608(a)]……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 28
    • BY REPUTATION TESTIMONY………………………………………………………… 28
    • BY OPINION TESTIMONY………………………………………………………………… 29
    • LIMITATIONS ON CROSS-EXAMINATION OF CHARACTER EVIDENCE………………………………………………………………………………………… 31
    • OPENING UP CHARACTER GENERALLY………………………………………… 31
    • RULE OF COMPLETENESS [FED. EVID. RULE 106]…………………….. 31
    • REMAINDERS OF OR RELATED WRITINGS OR RECORDED STATEMENTS…………………………………………………………………………………… 31
  • GETTING YOUR WITNESS TO THE COURTHOUSE…………………………. 32
  • OFFERS OF PROOF [FED. EVID. RULE 103(a)(2)]…………………………. 32
  • LAYING THE PROPER PREDICATE…………………………………………………. 33
    • PHOTOGRAPH EVIDENCE……………………………………………………………….. 33
    • SOUND RECORDINGS……………………………………………………………………… 34
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