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Federal Pretrial Release: Table of Contents

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Part II: Federal Pretrial Release (Read Full Document)

  • INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1
  • THE HISTORY OF PRETRIAL RELEASE……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1
  • NARROW SCOPE……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 4
  • REBUTTABLE PRESUMPTION……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 4
    • REBUTTABLE PRESUMPTION SHIFTS ONLY THE BURDEN OF PRODUCTION, NOT THE BURDEN OF PROOF OR PERSUASION……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 5
    • ACCUSED NEED ONLY PRODUCE “SOME EVIDENCE” TO SHIFT BURDEN OF PRODUCTION AND PROOF BACK TO PROSECUTION……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 7
  • DANGEROUSNESS IS RELATIVE, NOT ABSOLUTE……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 8
    • GOVERNMENT MUST MEET BURDEN OF “CLEAR AND CONVINCING” EVIDENCE AS TO DANGEROUSNESS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 9
    • STANDARD APPLIED……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 9
    • INDICTMENT MAY RAISE PRESUMPTION……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 10
    • HEARSAY MAY BE CONSIDERED…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 10
    • HOWEVER, HEARSAY MAY NOT BE SUFFICIENT…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 11
    • STATEMENTS MADE TO CURRY FAVOR WITH POLICE……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 12
  • BAIL CANNOT BE USED TO PUNISH…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 12
  • SHOULD THE DEFENDANT TESTIFY AT HIS DETENTION HEARING?…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 14
  • CONGRESS PASSES BAIL REFORM ACT: THE EIGHTH AMENDMENT DOES NOT MEAN WHAT IT SAYS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 15
    • DENIAL OF BAIL…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 15
    • PRETRIAL DETENTION INTENDED FOR LIMITED “SMALL BUT IDENTIFIABLE GROUP”…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 15
    • IF GOVERNMENT’S BURDENS ARE NOT MET, THE DEFENDANT NEED NOT REBUT THE PRESUMPTION…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 16
    • PREPONDERANCE OF EVIDENCE STANDARD AS TO FLIGHT…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 17
    • PROCEDURAL SAFEGUARDS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 17
    • INDICTMENT MAY NOT BE USED AS EVIDENCE…………………………………………………….. 18
    • CONSTITUTIONALITY UNSETTLED AS IT MAY BE APPLIED TO A PARTICULAR SET OF FACTS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 21
    • AN EXERCISE IN OBFUSCATION……………………………………………………………………………….. 22
    • THE EIGHTH AMENDMENT……………………………………………………………………………………….. 23
    • DUE PROCESS: DURATION OF DETENTION……………………………………………………………… 24
    • DETENTION MUST BE REQUIRED AT THE EARLIEST POSSIBLE OPPORTUNITY….. 25
    • THE “FIRST APPEARANCE” REQUIREMENT OF THE BAIL REFORM IS TO BE STRICTLY APPLIED……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 26
    • REASONABLE ASSURANCE THAT DEFENDANT WILL APPEAR…………………………….. 28
    • APPOINTMENT OF COUNSEL FOR INDIGENT MATERIAL WITNESS………………………. 29
    • FINDINGS OF FACTS AND REASONS FOR DETENTION MUST BE IN WRITING……… 29
    • REQUISITES TO REOPENING HEARING……………………………………………………………………. 30
    • REVIEW OF THE MAGISTRATE’S ACTION IS TO BE CONDUCTED “DE NOVO” BY DISTRICT COURT…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 30
    • MAXIMUM SENTENCE FOR EACH OFFENSE CHARGED MUST EXCEED TEN YEARS…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 30
    • APPELLATE REVIEW OF DISTRICT COURT BY COURT OF APPEALS……………………… 31
  • REVOCATION OF BAIL…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 31
    • RULES FOR HEARING ON MOTION TO REVOKE BAIL…………………………………………….. 31
    • STANDARD OF REVIEW AT REVOCATION HEARING……………………………………………… 32
    • BAIL POST TRIAL PENDING APPEAL: A “CLOSE” CALL………………………………………….. 32
    • QUESTION IS WHETHER DEFENDANT RAISES SUBSTANTIAL QUESTION……………. 32
    • “SUBSTANTIAL QUESTIONS”……………………………………………………………………………………. 33
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